Tag Archives: India

Addressing teacher quality in Australia and India

Reports over the past month show that Australia and India are countries are implementing new policies to address teacher quality, albeit with two distinctly different approaches.

In Australia, principals will be given the power to address teacher behavior as part of an $150 million reform effort to improve the quality of teaching. Education Minister Adrian Piccoli described it to the AAP as “more like a private sector approach to performance management….It’s going to be a fair process but a tougher process than what exists already.” Teachers who fail to meet the new standards of conduct could be released, demoted, fined or cautioned. Additional reforms include salaries based on meeting standards rather than employment length.

In India, the government has adopted a three-pronged strategy to improve teacher quality, which includes (i) the strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions, (ii) the revision of curriculum for teacher education in accordance with the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education 2009 and (iii) the laying down of minimum qualifications for Teacher Educators and their continuous professional development.

In Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the Indian state of Kerala, the District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) will embark on a three-month study to analyze how classroom practices correspond to the prescribed curriculum of the district’s primary schools.  As Mohammed Kabir, a DIET official, explained to The Hindu, “There is an increasing need to analyze the problems faced by practicing teachers to get a complete picture. Sometimes, teachers follow textbook-based teaching while the curriculum mandates on activity-based learning. This might be out of habit or due to lack of understanding about the methodology. Here, teachers can open up on the problems they face in adapting to the methods”, said Mohammed Kabir, a DIET official.

Scan of news: Teachers

Scotland: Susan Quinn, Union president, highlighted members' concerns.

Scotland: Susan Quinn, Union president, highlighted members’ concerns.

Over the past month, reports from various countries have shown both the concerns of teachers and concern about teachers. For example, reports of teacher concerns include India and Argentina, where teachers are looking for reliable salary payments, decent facilities, and quality education for allFinland, where teachers are concerned about a sharp increase in violent student behavior in the classroom; and Greece, where teachers are fighting for the right to protest in the midst of austerity measures that threaten the country’s education system itself. Additionally, in Scotland teachers are protesting a new curriculum and an unmanageable workload.

Reports of concerns about teachers include Lithuania, where students recently outperformed teachers on an exam created by the European Union; Israel, where teachers’ lack of expertise in mathematics has been blamed for student difficulties with the subject; and Malaysia, where the Education Ministry plans to conduct diagnostic exercises to benchmark Science teachers in terms of their content knowledge and pedagogical skills in the field.

Scan of news: Access and Funding

Sources in many countries over the past few weeks highlight issues ranging from educational access and funding, to quality curriculum and government corruption. Here is a quick glimpse of what we’ve seen on the issues of access and funding:

Pia Philip Michael and Bridget Nagomoro visited the UK to discuss the challenges to girls' education in South Sudan. Photograph: Leapfrog Public Relations

Pia Philip Michael and Bridget Nagomoro visited the UK to discuss the challenges to girls’ education in South Sudan. Photograph: Leapfrog Public Relations

Reports have shown that the United Arab Emirates is struggling with the issue of high tuition and long student wait lists, while Singapore’s Senior Minister of State for Education has suggested that the government link educational subsidies with evidence of high quality. Australia and the Philippines seek to increase investment in educational research by launching a partnership that aims to raise the quality of education in the Philippines through investing in research to support K-12 education. Meanwhile, union leaders in Peru met to develop policies that would defend the right of indigenous peoples to public education. Sudan aims to keep young girls in primary school by involving officials in the effort to spread the national message on educating girls. India is about to launch the second round of the Right to Education Act admissions, which will include a reservation of 25% seats in private schools for disadvantaged groups; however, reports reveals that word has not yet reached parents who would benefit most from the new provision. 


CBSE introduces Contemporary Comprehensive Education

The Times of India (June 6, 2013)

20453381.cmsThe Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation, introduced by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), was designed with the intention of reducing stress on students and evaluating them “in a more rounded way”; however, the system is being criticized for adding a layer of bureaucracy that reveals a distrust for schools and teachers, adding tremendous paperwork. Some say the process can be streamlined, and once members receive training the new process seems like less of a burden. Students seem to be heavily in favor of the system, which has turned the academic year into two semesters and, as one student said, “made even boring topics interesting through various projects.” Parents are also supportive, saying, “Students are not cramming notes like we had to. Their interpersonal and co-scholastic skills are better and they become better leaders.”

For more information:

A study on implementation of the Contemporary Comprehensive evaluation in upper primary schools of Kerala

Reforms in Mexico and India in the Journal of Educational Change

(links to articles are embedded as hyperlinks)

JEDU 2009:JEDU 2009In the most recent issue of the Journal of Educational Change, studies highlight teacher participation in reform efforts in Mexico and a participatory approach to wide-scale change in India.

Education Reform and Teacher Participation in Mexico

In their study of Mexico’s 2006 Reforma de la Educacion Secundaria (RS) (Reform of Secondary Educatión), Levinson, Blackwood and Cross conclude that despite interest in professionalizing teaching at the secondary level, “for the most part secondary teachers in Mexico neither felt like agents nor partners in the RS…. As in previous reform efforts, teachers mostly felt that they were recipients of plans formulated by government officials, and as a result many have evidenced neither complete compliance nor full commitment to the reform.”  They go on to explore the problematic role of the union in the reform and the concerns that many teachers have about the union. Recent reports from Mexico show that concerns about the union and teacher participation continue.  President Enrique Peña Nieto’s recent education reform initiative is widely seen as an effort to diminish the power of Mexico’s teacher union, which has been led by Elba Esther Gordillo; however, it is not clear if President Nieto will provide the essential structure and support that would allow for authentic teacher participation. At this time, the teachers and union leadership have been presented in the press as allies in the effort to protest Nieto’s reform.

Wide-scale change in India

While recent attention often focuses on the regulations of the Right to Education Act in India (including recent reports  and debates about the progress of this initiative), Tricia Niesz and Ramchandar Krishnamurthy suggested that the wide-scale adoption of Activity-Based Learning (ABL) in Tamil Nadu India was accomplished through a more participatory, grass-roots approach.  They argue that state-level administrators “engaged strategies for change that combined both movement-building tactics and the conventional tools of administrative power.”  These administrators themselves became experts in the ABL method in a way that built good will and moral authority even when administrators used top-down mandates to institutionalize the reform.

India: Funding the Right to Education (RTE) Act

Photo: The Hindu

Photo: The Hindu

In an effort to improve the country’s economy, the Indian government has cut funding to the Right to Education (RTE) Act, which aims to provide every child between the ages of six and 14 with an elementary education. Cuts are expected to total 2-3% of the total RTE budget for 2012-2013, a substantive deduction that will affect the implementation of the RTE legislation. Civic bodies, such as Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), have reported that they simply cannot afford to meet the requirements of RTE.  The decrease in funding is expected to affect many, such as disabled children who rely on government supported transportation, and children in areas of conflict.

Meanwhile, cities such as Nagpur are holding seminars to inform and educate local principals about RTE implementation, in the hope of improving student achievement country-wide. Tripura is a rare example of a state that has been able to meet the requirements of RTE. Tripura admitted 44,000 students under the RTE quota this year, and plans to increase the age of students who qualify to receive a free education. Tapan Chakraborty, School Education Minister, pointed out that the Left Front government has been spending more than 20% of its annual budget on education, while the central government has spent less than 10%.

Students will begin applying to schools under RTE on January 10, 2012; however, member schools of the Karnataka State Private School Management’s Federation (KSPSMF) have warned that they will not admit disadvantaged students if the government does not reimburse them.


Provide toilets and drinking water for every school, orders Supreme Court

AFP, The Economic Times (October 6, 2012)

The emphasis on moving from access to quality is a commonplace argument concerning schools in developing countries. India claims to have achieved close to 100% enrollment of girls and boys in primary schools and is embarking on quality strengthening interventions to retain these students; however, quality is an extremely wide concept in the context of India and in most schools it begins with providing potable water and clean and functional toilets to its students. The Supreme Court of India has recently passed a ruling making it mandatory for public schools to provide this most basic infrastructure over the period of next six months.

For more information:

Indian court orders toilets to be placed in all schools

The Times of India: School Toilets


Poor PISA score: Govt blames ‘disconnect ‘ with India

Anubhuti  Vishnoi,  Indian Express online (September 3, 2012)

Indian students participated in Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2009. 16,000 students from 400 schools across the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu took this test. Though Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are among the best performing states in India, the PISA scores of their students were dismally low, leading to much discussion in India. The Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD), however, is arguing that these scores are not a reflection of the country’s schooling but of the disconnect between the test questions and India’s socio-cultural specificities, especially that of rural India. The Ministry will write to the Organization for Economic Cooperation Development to address this disconnect.


AP for reforms to make RTE effective

The Hindu online (September 2, 2012)

The Right to Education Act (2009) makes education free and compulsory for children between 6 and 14 years. It also mandates government schools to provide free education to all children and that these schools be managed by School Management Committees (SMC). Viewing the disconnect between the local government schools and the people in that community as an impediment to the effective implementation of RTE, the Andra Pradesh School Education Department has recommended a series of reforms. These include making it compulsory for SMC members’ children to attend the concerned school in their locality, having teachers teach in other schools in the area to meet teacher shortage, and providing after-school remedial classes for students.


‘No detention’ policy works
Thomas, L.  The Hindu (18 May 2012)

The “no detention policy” in the Right to Education (RTE) Act “is one clause [of the act] that a majority of the teachers resent. It states that until class VIII, no child can be held back or expelled from school.”  Teachers believe the policy creates a “lackadaisical” mindset in their students, for the students have developed, in the teachers’ opinion, an attitude of “why study when there’s no fear of failing?”  RTE was enacted because of India’s extraordinarily high drop-out right, but “blindly following the ‘no detention policy’ will not help. Schools must offer bridge course for slow learners, but there is little focus on that. Classes with large student strength also make it difficult for teachers to offer extra care and attention to slow learners.”  Still, teachers find the “no detention” policy problematic, as some students are having difficulties passing examinations.